Freeman Dyson: Let’s look for life in the outer solar system

How will we be remembered in 200 years? I happen to live in a little town, Princeton, in New Jersey, which every year celebrates the great event in Princeton history: the Battle of Princeton, which was, in fact, a very important battle. It was the first battle that George Washington won, in fact, and was pretty much of a turning point in the war of independence. It happened 225 years ago. It was actually a terrible disaster for Princeton. The town was burned down; it was in the middle of winter, and it was a very, very severe winter. And about a quarter of all the people in Princeton died that winter from hunger and cold, but nobody remembers that. What they remember is, of course, the great triumph, that the Brits were beaten, and we won, and that the country was born. And so I agree very emphatically that the pain of childbirth is not remembered. It’s the child that’s remembered. And that’s what we’re going through at this time.

I wanted to just talk for one minute about the future of biotechnology, because I think I know very little about that — I’m not a biologist — so everything I know about it can be said in one minute. (Laughter) What I’m saying is that we should follow the model that has been so successful with the electronic industry, that what really turned computers into a great success, in the world as a whole, is toys. As soon as computers became toys, when kids could come home and play with them, then the industry really took off. And that has to happen with biotech.

There’s a huge — (Laughter) (Applause) — there’s a huge community of people in the world who are practical biologists, who are dog breeders, pigeon breeders, orchid breeders, rose breeders, people who handle biology with their hands, and who are dedicated to producing beautiful things, beautiful creatures, plants, animals, pets. These people will be empowered with biotech, and that will be an enormous positive step to acceptance of biotechnology. That will blow away a lot of the opposition. When people have this technology in their hands, you have a do-it-yourself biotech kit, grow your own — grow your dog, grow your own cat. (Laughter) (Applause) Just buy the software, you design it. I won’t say anymore, you can take it on from there. It’s going to happen, and I think it has to happen before the technology becomes natural, becomes part of the human condition, something that everybody’s familiar with and everybody accepts.

So, let’s leave that aside. I want to talk about something quite different, which is what I know about, and that is astronomy. And I’m interested in searching for life in the universe. And it’s open to us to introduce a new way of doing that, and that’s what I’ll talk about for 10 minutes, or whatever the time remains. The important fact is, that most of the real estate that’s accessible to us — I’m not talking about the stars, I’m talking about the solar system, the stuff that’s within reach for spacecraft and within reach of our earthbound telescopes — most of the real estate is very cold and very far from the Sun.

If you look at the solar system, as we know it today, it has a few planets close to the Sun. That’s where we live. It has a fairly substantial number of asteroids between the orbit of the Earth out through — to the orbit of Jupiter. The asteroids are a substantial amount of real estate, but not very large. And it’s not very promising for life, since most of it consists of rock and metal, mostly rock. It’s not only cold, but very dry. So the asteroids we don’t have much hope for.

There stand some interesting places a little further out: the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. Particularly, there’s a place called Europa, which is — Europa is one of the moons of Jupiter, where we see a very level ice surface, which looks as if it’s floating on top of an ocean. So, we believe that on Europa there is, in fact, a deep ocean. And that makes it extraordinarily interesting as a place to explore. Ocean — probably the most likely place for life to originate, just as it originated on the Earth. So we would love to explore Europa, to go down through the ice, find out who is swimming around in the ocean, whether there are fish or seaweed or sea monsters — whatever there may be that’s exciting — or cephalopods. But that’s hard to do. Unfortunately, the ice is thick. We don’t know just how thick it is, probably miles thick, so it’s very expensive and very difficult to go down there — send down your submarine or whatever it is — and explore. That’s something we don’t yet know how to do. There are plans to do it, but it’s hard.

Go out a bit further, you’ll find that beyond the orbit of Neptune, way out, far from the Sun, that’s where the real estate really begins. You’ll find millions or trillions or billions of objects which, in what we call the Kuiper Belt or the Oort Cloud — these are clouds of small objects which appear as comets when they fall close to the Sun. Mostly, they just live out there in the cold of the outer solar system, but they are biologically very interesting indeed, because they consist primarily of ice with other minerals, which are just the right ones for developing life. So if life could be established out there, it would have all the essentials — chemistry and sunlight — everything that’s needed.

So, what I’m proposing is that there is where we should be looking for life, rather than on Mars, although Mars is, of course, also a very promising and interesting place. But we can look outside, very cheaply and in a simple fashion. And that’s what I’m going to talk about. There is a — imagine that life originated on Europa, and it was sitting in the ocean for billions of years. It’s quite likely that it would move out of the ocean onto the surface, just as it did on the Earth. Staying in the ocean and evolving in the ocean for 2 billion years, finally came out onto the land. And then of course it had great — much greater freedom, and a much greater variety of creatures developed on the land than had ever been possible in the ocean. And the step from the ocean to the land was not easy, but it happened.

Now, if life had originated on Europa in the ocean, it could also have moved out onto the surface. There wouldn’t have been any air there — it’s a vacuum. It is out in the cold, but it still could have come. You can imagine that the plants growing up like kelp through cracks in the ice, growing on the surface. What would they need in order to grow on the surface? They’d need, first of all, to have a thick skin to protect themselves from losing water through the skin. So they would have to have something like a reptilian skin. But better — what is more important is that they would have to concentrate sunlight. The sunlight in Jupiter, on the satellites of Jupiter, is 25 times fainter than it is here, since Jupiter is five times as far from the Sun. So they would have to have — these creatures, which I call sunflowers, which I imagine living on the surface of Europa, would have to have either lenses or mirrors to concentrate sunlight, so they could keep themselves warm on the surface. Otherwise, they would be at a temperature of minus 150, which is certainly not favorable for developing life, at least of the kind we know. But if they just simply could grow, like leaves, little lenses and mirrors to concentrate sunlight, then they could keep warm on the surface. They could enjoy all the benefits of the sunlight and have roots going down into the ocean; life then could flourish much more. So, why not look? Of course, it’s not very likely that there’s life on the surface of Europa. None of these things is likely, but my, my philosophy is, look for what’s detectable, not for what’s probable.

There’s a long history in astronomy of unlikely things turning out to be there. And I mean, the finest example of that was radio astronomy as a whole. This was — originally, when radio astronomy began, Mr. Jansky, at the Bell labs, detected radio waves coming from the sky. And the regular astronomers were scornful about this. They said, “It’s all right, you can detect radio waves from the Sun, but the Sun is the only object in the universe that’s close enough and bright enough actually to be detectable. You can easily calculate that radio waves from the Sun are fairly faint, and everything else in the universe is millions of times further away, so it certainly will not be detectable. So there’s no point in looking.” And that, of course, that set back the progress of radio astronomy by about 20 years. Since there was nothing there, you might as well not look. Well, of course, as soon as anybody did look, which was after about 20 years, when radio astronomy really took off. Because it turned out the universe is absolutely full of all kinds of wonderful things radiating in the radio spectrum, much brighter than the Sun. So, the same thing could be true for this kind of life, which I’m talking about, on cold objects: that it could in fact be very abundant all over the universe, and it’s not been detected just because we haven’t taken the trouble to look.

So, the last thing I want to talk about is how to detect it. There is something called pit lamping. That’s the phrase which I learned from my son George, who is there in the audience. You take — that’s a Canadian expression. If you happen to want to hunt animals at night, you take a miner’s lamp, which is a pit lamp. You strap it onto your forehead, so you can see the reflection in the eyes of the animal. So, if you go out at night, you shine a flashlight, the animals are bright. You see the red glow in their eyes, which is the reflection of the flashlight. And then, if you’re one of these unsporting characters, you shoot the animals and take them home. And of course, that spoils the game for the other hunters who hunt in the daytime, so in Canada that’s illegal. In New Zealand, it’s legal, because the New Zealand farmers use this as a way of getting rid of rabbits, because the rabbits compete with the sheep in New Zealand. So, the farmers go out at night with heavily armed jeeps, and shine the headlights, and anything that doesn’t look like a sheep, you shoot. (Laughter)

So I have proposed to apply the same trick to looking for life in the universe. That if these creatures who are living on cold surfaces — either on Europa, or further out, anywhere where you can live on a cold surface — those creatures must be provided with reflectors. In order to concentrate sunlight, they have to have lenses and mirrors — in order to keep themselves warm. And then, when you shine sunlight at them, the sunlight will be reflected back, just as it is in the eyes of an animal. So these creatures will be bright against the cold surroundings. And the further out you go in this, away from the Sun, the more powerful this reflection will be. So actually, this method of hunting for life gets stronger and stronger as you go further away, because the optical reflectors have to be more powerful so the reflected light shines out even more in contrast against the dark background. So as you go further away from the Sun, this becomes more and more powerful. So, in fact, you can look for these creatures with telescopes from the Earth. Why aren’t we doing it? Simply because nobody thought of it yet.

But I hope that we shall look, and with any — we probably won’t find anything, none of these speculations may have any basis in fact. But still, it’s a good chance. And of course, if it happens, it will transform our view of life altogether. Because it means that — the way life can live out there, it has enormous advantages as compared with living on a planet. It’s extremely hard to move from one planet to another. We’re having great difficulties at the moment and any creatures that live on a planet are pretty well stuck. Especially if you breathe air, it’s very hard to get from planet A to planet B, because there’s no air in between. But if you breathe air — (Laughter) — you’re dead — (Laughter) — as soon as you’re off the planet, unless you have a spaceship.

But if you live in a vacuum, if you live on the surface of one of these objects, say, in the Kuiper Belt, this — an object like Pluto, or one of the smaller objects in the neighborhood of Pluto, and you happened — if you’re living on the surface there, and you get knocked off the surface by a collision, then it doesn’t change anything all that much. You still are on a piece of ice, you can still have sunlight and you can still survive while you’re traveling from one place to another. And then if you run into another object, you can stay there and colonize the other object. So life will spread, then, from one object to another. So if it exists at all in the Kuiper Belt, it’s likely to be very widespread. And you will have then a great competition amongst species — Darwinian evolution — so there’ll be a huge advantage to the species which is able to jump from one place to another without having to wait for a collision. And there’ll be advantages for spreading out long, sort of kelp-like forest of vegetation. I call these creatures sunflowers. They look like, maybe like sunflowers. They have to be all the time pointing toward the Sun, and they will be able to spread out in space, because gravity on these objects is weak. So they can collect sunlight from a big area. So they will, in fact, be quite easy for us to detect.

So, I hope in the next 10 years, we’ll find these creatures, and then, of course, our whole view of life in the universe will change. If we don’t find them, then we can create them ourselves. (Laughter) That’s another wonderful opportunity that’s opening. We can — as soon as we have a little bit more understanding of genetic engineering, one of the things you can do with your take-it-home, do-it-yourself genetic engineering kit — (Laughter) — is to design a creature that can live on a cold satellite, a place like Europa, so we could colonize Europa with our own creatures. That would be a fun thing to do. (Laughter) In the long run, of course, it would also make it possible for us to move out there. What’s going to happen in the end, it’s not going to be just humans colonizing space, it’s going to be life moving out from the Earth, moving it into its kingdom. And the kingdom of life, of course, is going to be the universe. And if life is already there, it makes it much more exciting, in the short run. But in the long run, if there’s no life there, we create it ourselves. We transform the universe into something much more rich and beautiful than it is today. So again, we have a big and wonderful future to look forward. Thank you. (Applause)

Genetic Engineering Will Change Everything Forever – CRISPR

Designer babies, the end of diseases, genetically modified humans that never age. Outrageous things that used to be science fiction are suddenly becoming reality. The only thing we know for sure is that things will change irreversibly.


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Imagine you were alive back in the 1980’s,

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and were told that computers would soon take over everything:

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from shopping, to dating, and the stock market,

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that billions of people would be connected via a kind of web,

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that you would own a handheld device orders of magnitudes more powerful than supercomputers.

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It would seem absurd, but then all of it happened.

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Science fiction became our reality and we don’t even think about it.

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We’re at a similar point today with genetic engineering.

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So let’s talk about it.

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Where it came from, what we’re doing right now,

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and about a recent breakthrough that will change how we live and what we perceive as normal forever.

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Humans have been engineering life for thousands of years.

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Through selective breeding, we strengthened useful traits in plants and animals.

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We became very good at this, but never fully understood how it worked.

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Until we discovered the code of life, Deoxyribonucleic Acid—DNA.

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A complex molecule that guides the growth, development, function, and reproduction of everything alive.

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Information is encoded in the structure of the molecule.

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Four nucleotides are paired and make up a code that carries instructions.

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Change the instructions and you change the being carrying it.

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As soon as DNA was discovered, people tried to tinker with it.

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In the 1960’s, scientist bombarded plants with radiation to cause random mutations in the genetic code.

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The idea was to get a useful plant variation by pure chance.

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Sometimes it actually worked too.

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In the 70’s, scientists inserted DNA
snippets into bacteria, plants, and animals

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to study and modify them for
research, medicine, agriculture, and for fun.

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The earliest genetically modified animal
was born in 1974, making mice a standard tool for research, saving millions of lives.

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In the 80’s, we got commercial. The first patent was given for a microbe engineered to absorb oil.

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Today we produce many chemicals by means of engineered life,

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like life-saving clotting factors, growth hormones, and insulin.

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All things we had to harvest from the organs of animals before that.

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The first food modified in the lab went on sale in 1994: the Flavr Savr tomato,

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a tomato given a much longer shelf life where an extra gene that suppresses the build-up of a rotting enzyme.

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But GM food and the controversy surrounding them deserve a video of their own.

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In the 1990’s, there was also a brief
foray into human engineering.

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To treat maternal infertility, babies were made that carried genetic information from 3 humans.

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Making them the first humans ever to have 3 genetic parents.

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Today there are super muscled pigs, fast-growing salmon, featherless chicken, and see-through frogs.

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On the fun side, we made things glow in the dark.

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Fluorescent zebrafish are available for
as little as ten dollars.

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All of this is already very impressive, but until recently

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gene editing was extremely expensive,
complicated, and took a long time to do.

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This has now changed with a revolutionary new technology now entering the stage—CRISPR.

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Overnight, the costs of engineering have shrunk by 99 %.

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Instead of a year, it takes a few weeks to conduct experiments, and basically everybody with a lab can do it.

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It’s hard to get across how big a technical revolution CRISPR is.

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It literally has the potential to change humanity forever.

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Why did this sudden revolution happen and how does it work?

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Bacteria and viruses have been fighting
since the dawn of life.

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So-called bacteriophages or phages hunt bacteria.

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In the ocean, phages kill 40 % of them every single day.

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Phages do this by inserting their own genetic code into the bacteria and taking them over to use them as factories.

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The bacteria tried to resist but failed most the time because their protection tools are too weak,

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But sometimes bacteria survive an attack.

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Only if they do so can they activate their most effective antivirus system:

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they save a part of the virus DNA in their own genetic code in a DNA archive called CRISPR.

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Here it’s stored safely until it’s needed.

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When the virus attacks again, the bacterium quickly makes an RNA copy from the DNA archive and arms a secret weapon—a protein called CAS9.

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The protein now scans the bacterium’s
insides for signs of the virus invader

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by comparing every bit of DNA it finds to the sample from the archive.

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When it finds a 100-percent perfect match,

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it’s activated and cuts out the virus
DNA, making it useless, protecting the bacterium against the attack.

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What’s special is that CAS9 is very
precise, almost like a DNA surgeon.

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The revolution began when scientists figured out that the CRISPR system is programmable.

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You can just give it a copy of DNA you want to modify and put the system into a living cell.

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If the old techniques of genetic manipulation were like a map, CRISPR is like a GPS system.

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Aside from being precise, cheap, and easy, CRISPR offers the ability to edit live cells,

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to switch genes on and off, and target and study particular DNA sequences.

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It also works for every type of cell: microorganisms, plants, animals, or humans.

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But despite the revolution CRISPR is for science, it’s still just a first generation tool.

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More precise tools are already being created and used as we speak.

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In 2015, scientists use CRISPR to cut the HIV virus out of living cells

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from patients in the lab, proving that it was possible.

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Only about a year later, they carried out a larger scale project with rats

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that had the HIV virus in basically all of their body cells.

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By simply injecting CRISPR into the rats tails,

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they were able to remove more than 50 %
of the virus from cells all over the body.

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In a few decades, a crystal therapy
might cure HIV and other retroviruses,

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viruses that hide inside human DNA like
Herpes could be eradicated this way.

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CRISPR could also defeat one of our worst enemies—cancer.

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Cancer occurs when cells refused to die and keep multiplying while concealing themselves from the immune system.

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CRISPR gives us the means to edit your immune cells and make them better cancer hunters.

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Getting rid of cancer might eventually mean

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getting just a couple of injections of a
few thousand of your own cells

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that have been engineered in the lab to heal you for good.

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The first clinical trial for a CRISPR cancer treatment on human patients was approved in early 2016 in the

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Not even a month later, Chinese scientists announced that they would treat lung cancer patients

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with immune cells modified with CRISPR in August 2016.

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Things are picking up pace quickly.

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And then there are genetic diseases.

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There are thousands of them and they range from mildly annoying to deadly or entail decades of suffering.

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With a powerful tool like CRISPR, we may be able to end this.

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Over 3,000 genetic diseases are caused by a single incorrect letter in your DNA.

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We are already building a modified
version of CAS9 that is made to change just a single letter, fixing the disease in the cell.

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In a decade or two, we could possibly cure thousands of diseases forever.

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But all of these medical applications have one thing in common:

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they are limited to the individual and die with them,

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except if you use them on reproductive cells or very early embryos.

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But crisper can and probably will be used for much more:

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the creation of modified humans—designer babies—and will mean gradual,

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but irreversible changes to the human gene pool.

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The means to edit the genome of a human embryo already exists.

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Though the technology is still in its early stages, but it has already been attempted twice.

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In 2015 and 2016, Chinese scientists experimented with human embryos and were partially successful on their second attempt.

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They showed the enormous challenges we still face in gene editing embryos,

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but also that scientists are
working on solving them.

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This is like the computer in the 70’s. There will be better computers.

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Regardless of your personal take on
genetic engineering, it will affect you.

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Modified humans could alter the genome of our entire species, because their engineered traits will be passed on to their children

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and could spread over generations, slowly modifying the whole gene pool of humanity.

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It will start slowly. The first designer babies will not be overly designed.

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It’s most likely that they will be created to eliminate a deadly genetic disease running in a family.

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As the technology progresses and gets
more refined, more and more people may argue that not using genetic modification is unethical,

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because it condemns children to preventable suffering and death and denies them the cure.

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But as soon as the first engineered kid is born, a door is opened that can’t be closed anymore.

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Early on, vanity traits will mostly be left alone.

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But as genetic modification becomes more accepted and our knowledge of our genetic code enhances, the temptation will grow.

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If you make your offspring immune to Alzheimer, why not also give them an enhance metabolism?

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Why not throw in perfect eyesight?

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How about height or muscular structure?

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Full hair?

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How about giving your child the gift of
extraordinary intelligence?

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Huge changes are made as a result of the personal decisions of millions of individuals that accumulate.

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This is a slippery slope. Modified humans could become the new standard.

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But as engineering becomes more
normal and our knowledge improves,

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we could solve the single biggest mortality risk factor: aging.

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Two-thirds of the 150,000 people who died today will die of age-related causes.

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Currently we think aging is caused by the accumulation of damage to ourselves,

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like DNA breaks and the systems responsible for fixing those wearing off over time.

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But there are also genes that directly affect aging.

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A combination of genetic engineering and other therapy could stop or slow down aging, maybe even reverse it.

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We know from nature that there are animals immune to aging.

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Maybe we could even borrow a few genes for ourselves.

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Some scientists even think biological aging could be something that eventually just stops being a thing.

00:10:59,009 –> 00:11:03,081
We would still die at some point, but instead of doing so in hospitals at age 90,

00:11:04,084 –> 00:11:06,170
we might be able to spend a few thousand years with our loved ones.

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Research into this is in its infancy,

00:11:12,024 –> 00:11:15,030
and many scientists are rightly skeptical about the end of aging.

00:11:16,004 –> 00:11:19,012
The challenges are enormous and maybe it is unachievable,

00:11:20,086 –> 00:11:25,132
but it is conceivable the people alive today might be the first to profit from effective anti aging therapy.

00:11:27,018 –> 00:11:31,026
All we might need is for someone to convince a smart billionaire to make it their next problem to solve.

00:11:32,098 –> 00:11:36,132
On a bigger scale, we certainly could solve many problems by having a modified population.

00:11:37,084 –> 00:11:40,087
Engineered humans might be better equipped to cope with high-energy food,

00:11:41,032 –> 00:11:44,050
eliminating many diseases of civilization like obesity.

00:11:44,096 –> 00:11:47,188
In possession of a modified immune system, with a library of potential threats,

00:11:49,014 –> 00:11:52,068
we might become immune to most diseases that haunt us today.

00:11:53,022 –> 00:11:57,031
Even further into the future, we could engineer humans to be equipped for extended space travel

00:11:58,074 –> 00:12:00,118
and to cope with different conditions on another planet,

00:12:02,006 –> 00:12:07,007
which would be extremely helpful in
keeping us alive in our hostile universe.

00:12:11,052 –> 00:12:15,104
Still, a few major challenges await us: some technological, some ethical.

00:12:17,048 –> 00:12:23,056
Many of you watching will feel uncomfortable and fear that we will create a world in which we will reject non-perfect humans

00:12:23,082 –> 00:12:26,154
and pre-select features and qualities based on our idea of what’s healthy.

00:12:28,036 –> 00:12:30,041
The thing is we are already living in
this world.

00:12:31,034 –> 00:12:37,034
Tests for dozens of genetic diseases or complications have become standard for pregnant women in much of the world.

00:12:38,052 –> 00:12:42,053
Often the mere suspicion of a genetic defect can lead to the end of a pregnancy.

00:12:44,058 –> 00:12:47,122
Take Down syndrome for example, one of the most common genetic defects.

00:12:48,098 –> 00:12:52,136
In Europe, about 90 % of all pregnancies where it’s detected are terminated.

00:12:54,006 –> 00:12:57,028
The decision to terminate pregnancy is incredibly personal,

00:12:57,052 –> 00:13:01,060
but it’s important to acknowledge the reality that we are pre-selecting humans based on medical conditions.

00:13:03,014 –> 00:13:05,018
There is also no use in pretending this will change,

00:13:05,068 –> 00:13:11,080
so we have to act carefully and respectfully as we advance the technology and can make more and more

00:13:12,007 –> 00:13:13,075
But none of this will happen soon.

00:13:15,016 –> 00:13:19,068
As powerful as CRISPR is—and it is, it’s not infallible yet.

00:13:20,026 –> 00:13:25,112
Wrong edits still happen as well as unknown errors that can occur anywhere in the DNA and might go unnoticed.

00:13:26,082 –> 00:13:29,088
The gene edit might achieve the desired result—disabling a disease,

00:13:30,062 –> 00:13:33,063
but also might accidentally trigger unwanted changes.

00:13:34,003 –> 00:13:39,006
We just don’t know enough yet about the
complex interplay of our genes to avoid unpredictable consequences.

00:13:40,082 –> 00:13:45,108
Working on accuracy and monitoring methods is a major concern as the first human trials begin.

00:13:46,066 –> 00:13:50,078
And since we’ve discussed a possible positive future, there are dark visions too.

00:13:52,001 –> 00:13:56,003
Imagine what a state like North Korea
could do if they embraced genetic engineering.

00:13:57,012 –> 00:14:01,060
Could a state cement its rule forever by forcing gene editing on their subjects?

00:14:02,074 –> 00:14:07,078
What would stop a totalitarian regime from engineering an army of modified super soldiers?

00:14:08,001 –> 00:14:09,033
It is doable in theory.

00:14:10,036 –> 00:14:14,122
Scenarios like this one are far, far off into the future, if they ever become possible at all.

00:14:15,078 –> 00:14:19,083
But the basic proof of concept for genetic engineering like this already exists today.

00:14:20,058 –> 00:14:22,072
The technology really is that powerful.

00:14:23,032 –> 00:14:29,046
While this might be a tempting reason to ban genetic editing and related research, that would certainly be a mistake.

00:14:30,041 –> 00:14:33,119
Banning human genetic engineering would only lead to the science wandering off

00:14:34,019 –> 00:14:37,047
to a place with jurisdiction and rules
that we are uncomfortable with.

00:14:38,048 –> 00:14:44,146
Only by participating can we make sure that further research is guided by caution, reason, oversight, and transparency.

00:14:50,006 –> 00:14:51,062
Do you feel uncomfortable now?

00:14:52,018 –> 00:14:53,025
Most of us have something wrong with them.

00:14:54,005 –> 00:14:57,097
In the future that lies ahead of us, would we have been allowed to exist?

00:14:59,024 –> 00:15:02,108
The technology is certainly a bit scary, but we have a lot to gain,

00:15:03,008 –> 00:15:08,090
and genetic engineering might just be a step in the natural evolution of intelligence species in the universe.

00:15:09,056 –> 00:15:10,138
We might end disease.

00:15:11,007 –> 00:15:15,055
We could extend our life expectancy by centuries and travel to the stars.

00:15:16,072 –> 00:15:18,079
There’s no need to think small when it comes to this topic.

00:15:20,006 –> 00:15:24,042
Whatever your opinion on genetic engineering, the future is approaching no matter what.

00:15:25,001 –> 00:15:29,083
What has been insane science fiction is about to become our new reality,

00:15:30,016 –> 00:15:34,016
a reality full of opportunities and challenges.

00:15:38,048 –> 00:15:41,057
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00:15:42,062 –> 00:15:47,064
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00:15:48,034 –> 00:15:52,037
If you want to learn more about CRISPR, we put the sources and further reading in the description.

00:15:53,016 –> 00:15:55,042
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00:15:55,009 –> 00:15:57,018
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