The Bull Run is not Over

Buy the Dip

Every bull run in crypto has seen 5-7 declines of 30% or more. The 2021 bull cycle is no exception.

In the long term, crypto will continue to outperform other asset classes.

Bitcoin is still set to hit $100K in the next 12 to 18 months.

Crypto is bigger than any one individual and that includes the world’s richest men, such as Elon Musk.

Unsurprisingly, China banning financial institutions from offering crypto services had an adverse effect on the already dropping market.

We have seen a lot of our clients rolling out of Bitcoin and into Ethereum.

With the run-up Bitcoin had, it is now time for some of the other currencies to shine.

With crypto, you have to take the long-term view because, on the one-, five-, ten-year scale, it tends to outperform just about any asset.

Justin Sun

Justin Sun (born July 30, 1990) is a tech entrepreneur, the founder of the cryptocurrency platform TRON and current CEO of Rainberry, Inc. He is the founder and CEO of mobile social app Peiwo[

Justin Sun holds an M.A. in East Asia Studies from the University of Pennsylvania and a B.A. in History from Peking University.

When he was 26, Sun was chosen by Jack Ma to study at Hupan University, and was the only millennial among the first graduates.[citation needed] Sun became the cover figure of Yazhou Zhoukan in 2011 and Davos Global Youth Leaders in 2014. In 2015 he was named CNTV’s most noteworthy new entrepreneur, and was named in Forbes China 30 Under 30 from 2015 through 2017.

Sun placed the record-breaking $4.5 million bid to have a private lunch with Berkshire Hathaway CEO Warren Buffett in June 2019, before cancelling it to widespread surprise. The lunch with Buffett eventually occurred in January 2020.

On 11 Mar 2021 Sun was, by a narrow margin, the underbidder on the historic $69M auction at Christie’s New York of the Beeple non-fungible token (NFT) collection Everydays: the First 5000 Days.

Justin Sun’s TRON

When many people hear the word TRON, they may think of the old arcade game or their minds may cast back to the 1980s cult classic film about computer programmers. However, Justin Sun’s TRON is far more sophisticated than anything from the 1982 film starring Jeff Bridges.

Sun has created a digital platform that enhances a myriad of entertainment options. Live shows, online casinos, mobile gaming and more are all enhanced through TRON. How does it work? Well, the program provides payment, development and more options for users. It is an innovative system that has led some to call Sun the ‘new Jack Ma’.

Sun’s TRON is being compared to China’s Alibaba e-commerce company, hence one of the reasons for Sun being grouped with the famous Ma. In China, TRON has already received the backing of numerous major players, and it has made Sun a popular figure in the e-commerce world. One of the reasons TRON is being so highly touted is due to its ability to accept and work with multiple virtual currencies. TRON could make global payments much easier, and companies around the world are highly interested in Sun’s brainchild.

Recently, Totalprestige Magazine spoke with Sun about TRON and its amazing capabilities.

Justin, can you please tell us what exactly is TRON, and what are its goals and objectives?

TRON protocol is the blockchain entertainment content ecosystem, in which TRX, TRON’s token, is circulated. It’s native economic system enables an unprecedented one-on-one interaction between providers of digital entertainment content and ordinary users.

Therefore, content providers will no longer need to pay high channel fees to centralized platforms like Google Play and Apple’s App Store. Also, providers of content such as texts, pictures, videos, and broadcasts, will break the curse of popularity, and hits cannot make profits. With the strengths of social network and value network, TRON is committed to ecological prosperity. In relation to any community and free market economy, an incentive system that fairly and reasonably reflects the contributions made by participants is fundamental.

TRON will attempt to accurately and transparently measure and motivate relevant participants and contributors using digital assets for the first time, thus enabling this content ecosystem with TRX.

Tron is a decentralized content protocol that aims to establish a global free content entertainment ecosystem through blockchain technology. It allows each user to freely publish, store, and own data. The content creators will be empowered through the free creation, circulation, and trading of digital assets under decentralized self-governance.

Can you let us know how TRON began and what some of the highlights have been?

In 2015, I graduated from the University of Pennsylvania with a Master’s Degree. I previously gained a Bachelor’s Degree at Peking University. I started a project called Peiwo, an app that is now one of the largest audio-based live show platforms in China, with over 10 million registered users and around 1 million monthly active users.

The Peiwo app will become the first TRON-compatible entertainment app and the first live show software in the world to support a ‘smart contract protocol’ of virtual currency, allowing those 10 million registered users to benefit from the additional functions of virtual currency.

This is only the first move of TRON. Next, we will provide the infrastructure construction for entertainment systems around the world, including online casino and games. Additionally, API access will be provided to facilitate robust settlement services. Our first move, though, is for TRON to make the Peiwo app benefit from its blockchain network.

What TRON provides is a shared platform for the whole entertainment market to maintain user information and share it between systems, and it is breaking down information barriers between apps.

It is explained that in this way users can significantly reduce information input efforts in specific apps, while developers can realize highly effective interactions in the realm of user identification, reducing duplicate identification costs, and preventing the risk of user information being stolen and leaked by intermediate agencies.

Justin, can you please let us know about yourself and how your career began?

I am 26-years-old and come from the Haidian District of Beijing. I’m originally from Shandong Province on the coast by the Bohai Sea. I first became part of the cryptocurrency community back in 2012 with my first purchases of bitcoin.

A year later, I joined Ripple and worked as the chief representative of Greater China. I helped Ripple with the successful completion of their first-round financing which totaled $30 million, and subsequently, it helped them become one of the world’s top three virtual currency systems.

For more information on TRON, please vist www.Tron.Network/en.html.

BitTorrent (BTT)

What Is BitTorrent (BTT)?
BitTorrent is a popular peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing and torrent platform which has become increasingly decentralized in recent years.

Originally released in July 2001, BitTorrent was purchased by blockchain platform TRON in July 2018.

Since its acquisition, BitTorrent has added various new tools, with a dedicated native cryptocurrency token, BTT, released in February 2019. BTT was launched on TRON’s own blockchain, using its TRC-10 standard.

According to its official literature, BitTorrent is currently the “largest decentralized P2P communications protocol” in the world.

Who Are the Founders of BitTorrent?
The original BitTorrent is the brainchild of Bram Cohen, a developer and entrepreneur who himself has since become well known in the cryptocurrency arena.

Cohen has explained that he designed BitTorrent to usurp the dated entertainment industry, which made obtaining material slow and expensive.

The platform has seen multiple legal battles, with Cohen maintaining that it does not break copyright laws in allowing users to share files such as music and movies among themselves.

In 2018, TRON completed its acquisition of BitTorrent, bringing BitTorrent under the control of Justin Sun. Sun is notorious for his plugging of both TRON as a cryptocurrency and its blockchain technology, bidding $4.5 million at a charity auction to have lunch with Warren Buffett (well-known anti-crypto figure) and discuss cryptocurrency with him.

TRON is also behind the addition of cryptocurrency to BitTorrent, as the BTT token was released on TRON’s blockchain. The move formed part of TRON’s efforts to add further decentralized features to the platform.

What Makes BitTorrent Unique?
BitTorrent’s original goal was to disrupt the legacy entertainment industry and how consumers obtain content.

Expensive and inefficient distribution networks were the main target, with original developer Bram Cohen seeing benefits in allowing internet users to distribute content among themselves directly.

In the early 2000s, BitTorrent became the go-to P2P file sharing platform, with TRON stepping in 2018.

Under TRON, BitTorrent has expanded its user appeal to those interested in decentralized solutions and cryptocurrency, as well as to its own user base.

Among the added features are BitTorrent Speed, which uses the BTT token as part of its operations.

BitTorrent has also branched out into paid services, offering several “premium” versions of its platform which include VPN capabilities and ad-free browsing.

New to crypto? Find the answers to all your questions on Alexandria, CoinMarketCap’s dedicated education resource.

How Many BitTorrent (BTT) Coins Are There in Circulation?
BTT is BitTorrent’s native cryptocurrency, issued on TRON’s blockchain as a TRC-10 standard token.

The total supply, as stated in its whitepaper, is 990,000,000,000 BTT. 6% of that total was available in a public token sale, 2% in a private token sale and 9% in a seed sale.

Another 20.1% are reserved for airdrops, which are set to occur at various points until 2025. The BitTorrent team and umbrella organization, the BitTorrent Foundation, were awarded 19% of the supply. The TRON foundation holds 20%, with 19.9% going to the BitTorrent ecosystem itself.

A final 4% of tokens are reserved for partnership activities.

BTT plays various roles in BitTorrent’s products, including allowing users to pay others for faster downloads with BitTorrent Speed.

How Is the BitTorrent Network Secured?
BitTorrent says that it employs “the highest level of security measures” in order to secure user funds, but advises that cryptocurrency involves inherent risk.

The company recommends that users protect themselves against theft, in the form of malware or similar programs, by using options such as biometric verification.

Where Can You Buy BitTorrent (BTT)?
BTT is tradable for cryptocurrencies, stablecoins and even fiat currencies on major exchanges. Binance, Huobi Global and OKEx are among the offerings

Immanuel Kant, Writer, Philosopher

Immanuel Kant is one of the central figures of modern philosophy, and set the terms by which all subsequent thinkers have had to grapple. He argued that human perception structures natural laws, and that reason is the source of morality. His thought continues to hold a major influence in contemporary thought, especially in fields such as metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, and aesthetics.

A black hole in your pocket?


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What would happen to you if a black hole the size of a coin suddenly appeared near you?

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Short answer: you’d die.

00:00:06,351 –> 00:00:07,424
Long answer: it depends.

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Is it a black hole with
the mass of a coin,

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or is it as wide as a coin?

00:00:11,503 –> 00:00:14,549
Suppose a US nickel with
the mass of about 5 grams

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magically collapsed into a black hole.

00:00:17,083 –> 00:00:20,139
This black hole would have a radius
of about 10 to the power of −30 meters.

00:00:20,645 –> 00:00:24,727
By comparison, a hydrogen atom is about
10 to the power of −11 meters.

00:00:25,465 –> 00:00:27,564
So the black hole compared
to an atom is as small as

00:00:28,455 –> 00:00:29,531
an atom compared to the Sun.

00:00:30,215 –> 00:00:31,282
Unimaginably small!

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And a small black hole would also have
an unimaginably short lifetime

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to decay by Hawking radiation.

00:00:37,285 –> 00:00:42,302
It would radiate away what little mass it
has in 10 to the power of −23 seconds.

00:00:42,455 –> 00:00:46,532
Its 5 grams of mass will be converted
to 450 terajoules of energy,

00:00:47,225 –> 00:00:50,246
which will lead to an explosion
roughly 3 times bigger than

00:00:50,246 –> 00:00:53,283
the atomic bombs dropped on
Hiroshima and Nagasaki combined.

00:00:53,627 –> 00:00:54,674
In this case, you die.

00:00:55,097 –> 00:00:56,195
You also lose the coin.

00:00:57,092 –> 00:00:59,170
If the black hole had the
diameter of a common coin,

00:00:59,088 –> 00:01:01,341
then it would be considerably
more massive.

00:01:02,133 –> 00:01:05,265
In fact, a black hole with
the diameter of a nickel

00:01:05,265 –> 00:01:07,286
would be slightly more
massive than the Earth.

00:01:07,475 –> 00:01:10,547
It would have a surface gravity
a billion billion times greater

00:01:11,195 –> 00:01:12,202
than our planet currently does.

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Its tidal forces on you would be so strong

00:01:15,483 –> 00:01:17,567
that they’d rip your
individual cells apart.

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The black hole would consume you before
you even realized what’s happening.

00:01:22,393 –> 00:01:24,419
Although the laws of gravity
are still the same,

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the phenomenon of gravity that you’d
experience would be very different

00:01:28,007 –> 00:01:29,091
around such dense objects.

00:01:29,087 –> 00:01:30,169
The range of the gravitational attraction

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extends over the entire
observable universe,

00:01:33,972 –> 00:01:36,974
with gravity getting weaker the farther
away you are from something.

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On Earth right now, your head and your
toes are approximately the same distance

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from the center of our planet.

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But if you stood on
a nickel-sized black hole,

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your feet would be hundreds
of times closer to the center,

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and the gravitational force would be
tens of thousands of times as large

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as the force on your head and
rip you into a billion pieces.

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But the black hole wouldn’t
stop with just you.

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The black hole is now a
dominant gravitational piece

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of the
Earth–Moon–Black-Hole-of-Death system.

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You might think that the black hole would
sink towards the center of the planet

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and consume it from the inside out.

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In fact, the Earth also moves up onto the black hole and begins to bob around,

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as if it were orbiting the black hole,

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all while having swathes of mass eaten with each pass,

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which is much more creepy.

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As the Earth is eaten up from the inside,

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it collapses into a
scattered disk of hot rock,

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surrounding the black hole
in a tight orbit.

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The black hole slowly doubles its mass
by the time it’s done feeding.

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The Moon’s orbit is now highly elliptical.

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The effects on the Solar system
are awesome—

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in the Biblical sense of awesome,
which means terrifying.

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Tidal forces from the black hole would
probably disrupt the near-Earth asteroids,

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maybe even parts of the asteroid belt,

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sending rocks careening
through the Solar system.

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Bombardment and impacts
may become commonplace

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for the next few million years.

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The planets are slightly perturbed, but
stay approximately in the same orbit.

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The black hole we used
to call Earth will now

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continue on orbiting
the Sun in the Earth’s place.

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In this case, you also die.

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This bonus video was made possible
by your contributions on Patreon.

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Thank you so much for your support!

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The topic is based on a question on
the AskScience subreddit

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and the glorious answer by Matt [Caplin?],
who also worked with us on this video.

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Check out his blog, Quarks and Coffee,
for more awesome stuff like this!

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If you want to discuss the video,
we have our own subreddit now.

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To learn more about black holes or equally
interesting neutron stars, click here.

00:03:35,000 –> 00:03:38,000
Subtitles by the community

Event horizon of a black hole

a supermassive black hole with millions to billions times the mass of our sun
One of the best-known examples of an event horizon derives from general relativity’s description of a black hole, a celestial object so massive that no nearby matter or radiation can escape its gravitational field. Often, this is described as the boundary within which the black hole’s escape velocity is greater than the speed of light. However, a more accurate description is that within this horizon, all lightlike paths (paths that light could take) and hence all paths in the forward light cones of particles within the horizon, are warped so as to fall farther into the hole. Once a particle is inside the horizon, moving into the hole is as inevitable as moving forward in time, and can actually be thought of as equivalent to doing so, depending on the spacetime coordinate system used.

The surface at the Schwarzschild radius acts as an event horizon in a non-rotating body that fits inside this radius (although a rotating black hole operates slightly differently). The Schwarzschild radius of an object is proportional to its mass. Theoretically, any amount of matter will become a black hole if compressed into a space that fits within its corresponding Schwarzschild radius. For the mass of the Sun this radius is approximately 3 kilometers and for the Earth, it is about 9 millimeters. In practice, however, neither the Earth nor the Sun has the necessary mass and therefore the necessary gravitational force, to overcome electron and neutron degeneracy pressure. The minimal mass required for a star to be able to collapse beyond these pressures is the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff limit, which is approximately three solar masses.

Black hole event horizons are widely misunderstood. Common, although erroneous, is the notion that black holes “vacuum up” material in their neighborhood, where in fact they are no more capable of “seeking out” material to consume than any other gravitational attractor. As with any mass in the Universe, matter must come within its gravitational scope for the possibility to exist of capture or consolidation with any other mass. Equally common is the idea that matter can be observed “falling into” a black hole. This is not possible. Astronomers can only detect accretion disks around black holes, where material moves with such speed that friction creates high-energy radiation which can be detected (similarly, some matter from these accretion disks is forced out along the axes of spin of the black hole, creating visible jets when these streams interact with matter such as interstellar gas or when they happen to be aimed directly at Earth). Furthermore, a distant observer will never actually see something cross the horizon. Instead, while approaching the hole, the object will seem to go ever more slowly, while any light it emits will be further and further redshifted.

Super Massive Blackholes

A supermassive black hole (SMBH) is the largest type of black hole, on the order of hundreds of thousands to billions of solar masses (M☉), and is found in the center of almost all massive galaxies. In the case of the Milky Way, the SMBH corresponds with the location of Sagittarius A.

Ion Ring Blackhole
Side view of black hole with transparent toroidal ring of ionised matter according to a proposed model for Sgr A. This image shows result of bending of light from behind the black hole, and it also shows the asymmetry arising by the Doppler effect from the extremely high orbital speed of the matter in the ring.

Supermassive black holes have properties that distinguish them from lower-mass classifications.

First, the average density of a supermassive black hole (defined as the mass of the black hole divided by the volume within its Schwarzschild radius) can be less than the density of water in the case of some supermassive black holes. This is because the Schwarzschild radius is directly proportional to mass, while density is inversely proportional to the volume. Since the volume of a spherical object (such as the event horizon of a non-rotating black hole) is directly proportional to the cube of the radius, the minimum density of a black hole is inversely proportional to the square of the mass, and thus higher mass black holes have lower average density. In addition, the tidal forces in the vicinity of the event horizon are significantly weaker for massive black holes.

As with density, the tidal force on a body at the event horizon is inversely proportional to the square of the mass: a person on the surface of the Earth and one at the event horizon of a 10 million M☉ black hole experience about the same tidal force between their head and feet. Unlike with stellar mass black holes, one would not experience significant tidal force until very deep into the black hole.

Black Holes Explained

Black Holes Explained


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Black holes are one of the strangest things in existence.

00:00:03,007 –> 00:00:05,015
They don’t seem to make any sense at all.

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Where do they come from…

00:00:07,003 –> 00:00:09,011
…and what happens if you fall into one?

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Stars are incredibly massive collections of mostly hydrogen atoms

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that collapsed from enormous gas cloud under their own gravity.

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In their core, nuclear fusion crushes hydrogen atoms into helium

00:00:26,098 –> 00:00:28,100
releasing a tremendous amount of energy

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This energy, in the form of radiation,

00:00:31,062 –> 00:00:32,069
pushes against gravity,

00:00:33,032 –> 00:00:36,034
maintaining a delicate balance between the two forces.

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As long as there is fusion in the core,

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a star remains stable enough.

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But for stars with way more mass then our own sun

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the heat and pressure at the core allow them to fuse heavier elements

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until they reach iron.

00:00:50,003 –> 00:00:52,015
Unlike all the elements that went before,

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the fusion process that creates iron

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doesn’t generate any energy.

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Iron builds up at the center of the star

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until it reaches a critical amount

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and the balance between radiation and gravity is suddenly broken.

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The core collapses.

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Within a fraction of a second,

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the star implodes.

00:01:09,072 –> 00:01:11,072
Moving at about the quarter of the speed of light,

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feeding even more mass into the core.

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It’s at this very moment that all the heavier elements in the universe are created,

00:01:18,052 –> 00:01:21,060
as the star dies, in a super nova explosion.

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This produces either a neutron star,

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or if the star is massive enough,

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the entire mass of the core collapses into a black hole.

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If you looked at a black hole,

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what you’d really be seeing is the event horizon.

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Anything that crosses the event horizon

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needs to be travelling faster than the speed of light to escape.

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In other words, its impossible.

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So we just see a black sphere

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reflecting nothing.

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But if the event horizon is the black part,

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what is the “hole” part of the black hole?

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The singularity.

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We’re not sure what it is exactly.

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A singularity may be indefinitely dense,

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meaning all its mass is concentrated into a single point in space,

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with no surface or volume,

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or something completely different.

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Right now, we just don’t know.

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its like a “dividing by zero”error.

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By the way, black holes do not suck things up like a vacuum cleaner,

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If we were to swap the sun for an equally massive black hole,

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nothing much would change for earth,

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except that we would freeze to death, of course.

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what would happen to you if you fell into a black hole?

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The experience of time is different around black holes,

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from the outside,

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you seem to slow down as you approach the event horizon,

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so time passes slower for you.

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at some point, you would appear to freeze in time,

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slowly turn red,

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and disapear.

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While from your perspective,

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you can watch the rest of the universe in fast forward,

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kind of like seeing into the future.

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Right now, we don’t know what happens next,

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but we think it could be one of two things:

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One, you die a quick death.

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A black hole curves space so much,

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that once you cross the event horizon,

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there is only one possible direction.

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you can take this – literally – inside the event horizon,

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you can only go in one direction.

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Its like being in a really tight alley that closes behind you after each step.

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The mass of a black hole is so concentrated,

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at some point even tiny distances of a few centimeters,

00:03:14,004 –> 00:03:18,076
would means that gravity acts with millions of times more force on different parts of your body.

00:03:19,012 –> 00:03:20,088
Your cells get torn apart,

00:03:20,009 –> 00:03:22,011
as your body stretches more and more,

00:03:22,092 –> 00:03:24,092
until you are a hot stream of plasma,

00:03:24,092 –> 00:03:25,106
one atom wide.

00:03:26,056 –> 00:03:28,064
Two, you die a very quick death.

00:03:28,098 –> 00:03:30,112
Very soon after you cross the event horizon,

00:03:31,012 –> 00:03:33,096
you would hit a firewall and be terminated in an instant.

00:03:34,044 –> 00:03:36,128
Neither of these options are particularly pleasant.

00:03:37,088 –> 00:03:39,180
How soon you would die depends on the mass of the black hole.

00:03:41,016 –> 00:03:44,072
A smaller black hole would kill you before you even enter its event horizon,

00:03:44,072 –> 00:03:48,080
while you probably could travel inside a super size massive black hole for quite a while.

00:03:48,086 –> 00:03:49,088
As a rule of thumb,

00:03:50,006 –> 00:03:52,010
the further away from the singularity you are,

00:03:52,001 –> 00:03:53,027
the longer you live.

00:03:53,078 –> 00:03:55,094
Black holes come in different sizes.

00:03:55,094 –> 00:03:56,168
There are stellar mass black holes,

00:03:57,068 –> 00:03:58,164
with a few times the mass of sun,

00:03:59,064 –> 00:04:00,150
and the diameter of an asteroid.

00:04:01,005 –> 00:04:03,061
And then there are the super massive black holes,

00:04:04,006 –> 00:04:06,024
which are found at the heart of every galaxy,

00:04:06,024 –> 00:04:08,120
and have been feeding for billions of years.

00:04:09,002 –> 00:04:11,100
Currently, the largest super massive black hole known,

00:04:12,018 –> 00:04:14,116
is S5 0014+81.

00:04:15,028 –> 00:04:17,032
40 billion times the mass of our sun.

00:04:18,028 –> 00:04:22,028
It is 236.7 billion kilometers in diameter,

00:04:22,028 –> 00:04:25,072
which is 47 times the distance from the sun to Pluto.

00:04:25,072 –> 00:04:26,168
As powerful as black holes are,

00:04:27,007 –> 00:04:30,091
they will eventually evaporate through a process called Hawking radiation.

00:04:31,094 –> 00:04:32,100
To understand how this works,

00:04:33,054 –> 00:04:34,112
we have to look at empty space.

00:04:35,052 –> 00:04:36,150
Empty space is not really empty,

00:04:37,005 –> 00:04:39,063
but filled with virtual particles popping into existence

00:04:40,008 –> 00:04:41,076
and annihilating each other again.

00:04:41,076 –> 00:04:43,132
When this happens right on the edge of a black hole,

00:04:44,032 –> 00:04:46,118
one of the virtual particles will be drawn into the black hole,

00:04:47,018 –> 00:04:49,096
and the other will escape and become a real particle.

00:04:50,012 –> 00:04:52,044
So the black hole is losing energy.

00:04:52,009 –> 00:04:54,023
This happens incredibly slowly at first,

00:04:55,001 –> 00:04:57,013
and gets faster as the black hole becomes smaller.

00:04:58,002 –> 00:05:00,003
When it arrives at the mass of a large asteroid,

00:05:00,012 –> 00:05:01,060
its radiating at room temperature.

00:05:02,014 –> 00:05:03,021
When it has the mass of a mountain,

00:05:03,084 –> 00:05:04,092
it radiates with about the heat of our sun.

00:05:05,064 –> 00:05:06,148
and in the last second of its life,

00:05:07,005 –> 00:05:11,077
the black hole radiates away with the energy of billions of nuclear bombs in a huge explosion.

00:05:12,082 –> 00:05:13,174
But this process is incredibly slow,

00:05:14,074 –> 00:05:15,152
The biggest black holes we know,

00:05:16,052 –> 00:05:18,126
might take up a googol year to evaporate.

00:05:19,052 –> 00:05:22,055
This is so long that when the last black hole radiates away,

00:05:22,082 –> 00:05:24,086
nobody will be around to witness it.

00:05:25,022 –> 00:05:27,044
The universe will have become uninhabitable,

00:05:27,006 –> 00:05:28,008
long before then.

00:05:28,008 –> 00:05:29,090
This is not the end of our story,

00:05:30,062 –> 00:05:32,110
there are loads more interesting ideas about black holes,

00:05:33,048 –> 00:05:35,066
we’ll explore them in part 2.

Schwarzschild radius

The Schwarzschild radius (sometimes historically referred to as the gravitational radius) is the radius of a sphere such that, if all the mass of an object were to be compressed within that sphere, the escape velocity from the surface of the sphere would equal the speed of light. An example of an object where the mass is within its Schwarzschild radius is a black hole. Once a stellar remnant collapses to or below this radius, light cannot escape and the object is no longer directly visible outside, thereby forming a black hole. It is a characteristic radius associated with every quantity of mass. The Schwarzschild radius was named after the German astronomer Karl Schwarzschild, who calculated this exact solution for the theory of general relativity in 1916.

The Schwarzschild radius is given as

{\displaystyle r_{s}={\frac {2GM}{c^{2}}}}

where G is the gravitational constant, M is the object mass and c is the speed of light.